While geophysical prospection for iron ores has a long history in Sweden the use of geophysical archaeological prospection has been limited compared to other countries. In this paper we discuss the likely reasons for this situation and present a brief history of geophysical prospection and in particular geophysical archaeological prospection in Sweden. The first use of different prospection methods, such as metal detection, earth resistance, magnetic, ground-penetrating radar, seismic and electro-magnetic prospection in Swedish archaeology are presented. The archaeological Iron Age sites of Uppakra and Birka have been subject to relatively intensive prospection activity and are therefore mentioned separately. An overview of the current situation of geophysical archaeological prospection and related issues is given, and pitfalls and possibilities are discussed. The paper finishes with an outlook on possible future developments.